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Cybercrime Act South Africa

South African Law Cybercrime

  1. alise the disclosure of data messages which are harmful and to provide for interim protection orders
  2. al offences under South African law. These relate to: Unlawful access to a computer system or computer data storage medium. Unlawful interception of data and/or processing of unlawfully intercepted data. Unlawful use or possession of a software or hardware tool
  3. ''Magistrates'CourtsAct'' means the Magistrates'CourtsAct, 1944 (Act No. 32 of 1944); ''National Commissioner'' means the National Commissioner of the South African Police Service, appointed by the President under section 207(1) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996
  4. alised in South Africa. They are messages which: They are messages which: Incite damage to property or violence

Cybercrimes Act - Ellipsi

Think before you click - Ramaphosa signs Cybercrimes Act

  1. alises, amongst others, the disclosure of data messages which are harmful
  2. The wide ambit of jurisdiction created by the Cybercrimes Act means that South African courts will have the power to try persons that are not South African citizens, as well as persons that commit.
  3. al act dealing with computers, networks and smartphones. Additionally, cyber-crime also includes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet. Cyber-crime has become a huge issue not only in South Africa but around the world
  4. alises, amongst others, the disclosure of data messages which are harmful. Examples of such data messages include: 1.1 those which incite violence or.
  5. So, alongside Popa, the Protection of personal information act, the Cybercrimes Act is the latest tool in South Africa's legislative arsenal to fight cyber crime. It defines Cyber crimes, and much more specific detail than previous legislation has and it includes both cyber dependent and cyber enabled crimes
  6. the Republic of South Africa, 1996; person means a natural or a juristic person; Service means the South African Police Service established by section 5(1) of the South African Police Service Act, 1995 (Act No. 68 of 1995); and traffic data means data relating to a communication indicating the communication‟
  7. The prevalence of cybercrime in South Africa is on the rise - confirmed by Acting Judge Klein in the recent judgment of Fourie v Van Der Spuy and De Jongh Inc. 2019 JDR 1801 (GP), who remarked on this while pronouncing on a case in which a law firm fell victim to hackers at the expense of their client

Cybercrimes Act: SA finally joins the big boy table. PRESIDENT Cyril Ramaphosa has just signed the Cybercrimes Bill, which seeks to bring South Africa's cybersecurity laws in line with the rest. Together with the Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act 2020, which will be in full effect after 30 June 2021, the new cyber law is a key part of South Africa's armoury in the fight. Find out about South African cyber crime law and how they affect you or your organisation. Our law recognises the criminal threat that exists to cyberspac

Act No. 19 of 2020: Cybercrimes Act, 2020 The Cybercrimes Act 19 of 2020 intends: to create offences which have a bearing on cybercrime; to criminalise the disclosure of data messages which are harmful and to provide for interim protection orders; to further regulate jurisdiction in respe. Cybersecurity and Cybercrime Bill: briefing, with Deputy Minister Bill signed by the President and becomes Act 19 of 2020 Content available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 South Africa. license. This site is open source code built by OpenUp The Bill seeks to amend the Scientific Research Council Act of 1988, the Academy of Science of South Africa Act of 2001, the Human Sciences Research Council Act of 2008, the Technology Innovation Agency Act of 2008, and the South African National Space Agency Act of 2008, so as to harmonise the processes for the termination of the membership of.

The Act of Cybercrime - South Afric

Together with the Protection of Personal Information (Popi) Act 2020, which will be in full effect after 30 June 2021, the new cyber law is a key part of South Africa's armoury in the fight. The Cybercrimes Bill consolidates South Africa's cybercrime laws, which makes successful prosecution of criminals more likely. Up until now, cyber offences were charged under various acts, among others the Prevention of Organised Crime Act, and the Electronic Communications and Transactions (ECT) Act of 2002 South Africa: Cybersecurity Laws and Regulations 2021. ICLG - Cybersecurity Laws and Regulations - covers common issues in cybersecurity laws and regulations, including cybercrime, applicable laws, preventing attacks, specific sectors, corporate governance, litigation, insurance, and investigatory and police powers - in 26 jurisdictions Cyber crime - a South African perspective. Sizwe Snail from Snail Attorneys spoke on cyber crime in South Africa and various sections of the ECT Act dealing with different types of cyber crime. Mr Snail noted that the ECT Act would be amended by the Electronic Communications and Transactions Amendment Bill, 2012

While investigations are pending from South Africa's largest data leak, Experian won't be held liable as the POPI Act allows companies to comply with its new rules by 1 July 2021. Depending on how serious a breach is, the new Act makes provision for fines of up to R10-million ($597,000) and a jail sentence of up to 10 years. By Nafisa Akabo The prosecution of cybercrime in South Africa is regulated by the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002 (the ECTA) and the Cybercrimes and Cybersecurity and Related Matters Bill (the Bill). Alongside these pieces of legislation exists the common law, as well as the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. cybercrime act south africa . Committee adopts Cybercrimes Bill. More Vaccines To Be Produced In SA. Wednesday, July 21, 2021 - 4:08pm - Simbongile Makanda. Major Covid-19 vaccine producers, BioNTech and Pfizer have revealed that their vaccines will be produced in South Africa.. Part 1: The Budapest Convention Response to Cyber crime Part 2 : African response to e-commerce Part 3: South African response to e-commerce - The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Act 25 0f 2002 Part 4 : Proposed Amendments- Cybercrimes and Related Matters Bill Part 5 : Concluding remark Cybercrime Law in South Africa. By Fawzia Khan, Fawzia Kahn and Associates The issue of cyber bullying which was featured in a local Sunday newspaper on 30 August 2015, gave a harrowing and chilling account of a Durban school going teenager's nightmare, who was bullied by an unknown person on Facebook and other social media network platforms

As many South African organisations are in the process of maturing their privacy programmes in anticipation of the Protection of Personal Information Act's (POPIA) imminent commencement date on 1 July 2021, it is important to identify key principles from the Cybercrimes Act to consider in your privacy programme, as in certain instances, POPIA. 23.! Child!pornography!and!related!offences.! 24.! Cyberstalking.! 25.! Cybersquatting.! 26.! Racistand!xenophobic!offences.! 27.! Attempt,!conspiracy,!aiding!and. South Africa's Cybercrimes Bill, 2017 - One Step Closer. Updated: Sep 7, 2020. 1 July 2020 marks the passing of South Africa's Cybercrimes Bill (B6B-2017) (the Bill ) by the National Council of Provinces (with the NCOP's proposed amendments) - this comes after the Select Committee on Security and Justice adopted the Bill on 11 June 2020 Cybercrime Law in South Africa Cybercrime Law in South Africa By Fawzia Khan, Fawzia Kahn and Associates. The issue of cyber bullying which was featured in a local Sunday newspaper on 30 August 2015, gave a harrowing and chilling account of a Durban school going teenager's nightmare, who was bullied by an unknown person on Facebook and other social media network platforms

South Africas new cybercrime act aimed at dealing with online abuse. As technology and social media became part of everyone's daily lives, it created the unfortunate risk of online abuse. This is also known as cyberbullying. South Africa has recently finalised the Cybercrimes Act Cybercrime accounts for losses of 1 billion Rand (about 64 billion dollars) for South Africa every year. Sabric . In this context, cybercrime is growing. Data on the subject are somewhat scattered, but the main target on the African continent is very probably South Africa, because of its high connectivity rate, its wealth, and its GDP per. Cybercrimes and Cybersecurity Bill introduced in Parliament. Cybercrime is on the increase, not only abroad but also in South Africa. This includes data kidnapping and data ransom demands. According to a report by McAfee, cybercrime is estimated to cost South African companies more than R5.8 billion a year

South Africa plans to introduce new 'cybercrimes' - including messages which could land you in jail or with a fine that it deems appropriate under section 276 of the Criminal Procedure. South Africa's new Cybercrimes Act brings the country into line with international standards and complements existing legislation on the protection of personal information. It also reaches beyond computer-based offences by outlawing cyber-enabled crime and malicious communications Cybercrime in South Africa. The prosecution of cybercrime in South Africa is regulated by the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002 (the ECTA) and the Cybercrimes and Cybersecurity and Related Matters Bill (the Bill). Alongside these pieces of legislation exists the common law, as well as the Constitution of the.

US-Russia ties: Biden tells Putin to act on cybercrime

South Africa has the third most cybercrime victims worldwide, losing R2.2 billion a year. Low investment in cyber security and immature cybercrime legislation makes South Africa a target. iDefense, an Accenture security company, identifies ways to defend against threats extradition. The Convention on Cybercrime also deals with the issue of extradition17 and provides that cyber crimes should be included as extraditable offences in an extradition treaty between signatory countries.18 Extradition in South Africa is governed by the Extradition Act19 that sets out in detail the procedures for extradition Transactions Act, Act 25 0f 2002 • After many years of legal uncertainty, Parliament enacted the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Act 25 of 2002 (ECT) which comprehensively deals with Cyber-crimes in Chapter XIII and has now created legal certainty as to what may and not constitute Cyber-crime

The Cybercrimes Act focuses on criminalising the theft and interference of data and brings South Africa's cybersecurity laws in line with the rest of the world. The objectives of the act is to Republic of South Africa . THE ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSACTIONS ACT of July 31 2002 (Act No. 25, 2002) CHAPTER XIII . CYBER CRIME. Unauthorised access to, interception of or interference with data. 86. (1) Subject to the Interception and Monitoring Prohibition Act, 1992 (Act No. 127 of 1993), a person who intentionally accesses or.

Cybercrime.org.z

1 Electronic Communications and Transactions Amendment Bill, 2012 South Africa definition of cybercrime carried on through the cyberspace, it is necessary at this juncture to earmark the notorious fact that today, unlike in the past, there is unprecedented rise in the frequency and sophisticatio South Africa- Blue Sky Publications (Pty) Ltd T/A TheSouthAfrican Number: 2005/028472/07. Address: Regus Business Centre 1st Floor, Block B, North Park, Black River Park, 2 Fir Street. South Africa (see Exhibit 1). However, mentions picked up slightly between 2014 and 2016. Since 2016 there has been a much higher focus on South Africa among the criminal underground. iDefense analysts note that attacks against Exhibit 1: Mentions of South Africa between 2010 and 2020 on Dark Web 250 200 150 100 50 0 010 1 1 012 013 3 The prosecution of cybercrime in South Africa is regulated by the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002 (the ECTA) and the Cybercrimes and Cybersecurity and Related Matters Bill (the Bill). Alongside these pieces of legislation exists the common law, as well as th

After all, the Budapest Convention was signed by many countries in Europe and even counted non-EU countries such as the United States, Canada, Japan, China and South Africa as among its member-states. It was against this backdrop that various cybercrime bills were deliberated upon, in both houses of Congress Establishing data protection and data privacy is vital in maintaining a company's reputation. A data breach may cause a loss of customer and partner trust. The loss of critical data, such as source files or intellectual property, can cost a company its competitive advantage. Going further, a data breach can impact corporate revenues due to. South Africa: Cybercrime post COVID-19 - Authorized push payment fraud in the world of investments. COVID-19 has led to an increase in online business dealings and transactions, which has resulted in a steady rise in cybercrime. Criminals are using techniques such as authorized push payment fraud to steal large sums of money from unsuspecting. COMMENTS BY THE LAW SOCIETY OF SOUTH AFRICA (LSSA) ON THE CYBERCRIMES AND CYBERSECURITY BILL The Law Society of South Africa (LSSA) wishes to take the opportunity to make the following Act 25 of 2002 (the ECT Act), which contained provisions about electronic writing, electronic signatures, cryptography, consumer protection, cybercrime.

The African Centre for Cyber law and Cybercrime Prevention The Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime The East African Community level (EAC) The UK Computer Misuse Act The United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI University of South Africa 2011) 49. 4 Joubert JJ Criminal procedure handbook 12th ed (Juta 2016) 7. 5 The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (hereinafter referred to as the Constitution). 6 s 205(3) of the Constitution The Cybercrimes Act is intended to regulate cybercrime and criminalises the disclosure of data messages that are harmful. Duncan Alfreds, News24 The act, among other things, regulates cybercrime and criminalises the disclosure of data messages that are harmful

South Africa's anti-money laundering legislation, the Financial Intelligence Centre Act, 38 of 2001, requires accountable institutions, such as banks, to ensure that proper documentation is provided by a party prior to opening a bank account, which, in theory, ought to prevent a party from being able to open a bank account in another party's name Gavin McLachlan is widely recognised as one of South Africa's leading experts in this field. A partner and director at Randles Attorneys since 1984, Gavin McLachlan is a councillor of the KwaZulu-Natal Law Society since 2011 and chairs its Library Committee, I T and Financial Intelligence Centre Committees, having set up its website and successful online library service in 1998 types of economic crime in South Africa show higher reported levels than the global average, with the exception of cybercrime, which is on par with the global figure. Figure 2 Types of economic crime experienced over the past 24 months South Africa 2016 Global 2016 South Africa 201 6 6 77% 1 2 5 37% 2 52 2 2 26 2 12 2 20 1 5 15 11 20 1 11 1 8%. Using WhatsApp to incite violence in South Africa - legal opinion Work With Us On 1 June 2021 we wrote an article about how President Cyril Ramaphosa had just assented to the Cybercrimes Bill to bring into law the Cybercrimes Act 19 of 2020 The ECT Act (or Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002 or ECTA) became law on Friday, 30 August 2002 and we summarise it for you

Experts at global cybersecurity firm-Kaspersky, expect growing economic turbulence along with the impact of Covid-19 to also contribute to an increase in cybercrime across South Africa and Nigeria Using WhatsApp to incite violence in South Africa - legal opinion. On 1 June 2021 we wrote an article about how President Cyril Ramaphosa had just assented to the Cybercrimes Bill to bring into. Abuja, June 10, 2020 - Nigerian authorities should immediately release journalist Saint Meinpamo Onitsha, drop all charges against him, and reform the country's cybercrime act to ensure it is not used to prosecute the press, the Committee to Protect Journalists said today. On June 4, officers with Nigeria's Department of State Services detained Onitsha, founder.. A new cybercrime crime will support South Africa's efforts to fight internet-based offenses. The law, which defines cybercrime as acts such as: the unlawful access to a computer or devicethe illegal interception of data; the unlawful acquisition, possession, receipt or use of a password; and forgery, fraud and extortion online. The legislation also provides for international.

Cybercrime in South Africa - Masthea

Act 22, 2007. An Act to combat cybercrime and computer related crimes, to repress criminal activities perpetrated through computer systems and to facilitate the collection of electronic evidence. [Date of commencement: 28th December, 2007] PART I Preliminary (ss 1-3) 1. Short title This Act may be cited as the Cybercrime and Computer Related. 3. Criminalizing Cyber-crime in the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act In Narlis v. South African Bank of Athens 1976 (2) SA 573 (A), the Court held that a computer printout was inadmissible in terms of the Civil Procedure and Evidence Act 25 of 1965. It was also held that a computer is not a person A new law brings South Africa up to international standards for fighting cybercrime. With a global spike in internet-based offences, partly driven by more people working from home due to the Covid.

1. Introduction Computer crime or commonly referred to as Cyber Crime or ICT Crime (van der Merwe, 2008, p.61) is a new type of criminal activity which started showing its ugly head in the early 90's as the Internet became a common place for online users worldwide. This is due to the fact that computer criminals now have the opportunity to gain access to sensitive information if they possess. The Select Committee on Security and Justice has adopted the Cybercrimes Bill, among several other pieces of legislation. The Cybercrimes Bill (B 6B-2017) aims to create offences that have a bearing on cybercrime; criminalise the distribution of harmful data messages and to provide for interim protection orders; further, regulate jurisdiction in respect of cybercrimes; further regulate the. Russia, India, China, and South Africa) (Kshetri, 2015), African economies have faced economic and institutional barriers in developing cybersecurity manpower. For instance, Cameroon which is among the countries worst affected by cybercrime in Africa, was reported to be facing a dilemma to take measures to address the problem Prepared by: In partnership with: (31 March 2011 to date) [This is the current version and applied as from 31 March 2011, the day of commencement of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 - to date] ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSACTIONS ACT 25 OF 2002 (Gazette No. 23708, No. 1046 dated 2 August 2002

Cameroon, in central Africa, adopted cybercrime legislation in 2010, but has yet to introduce a specific data protection law, says Danielle Moukouri, managing partner at D.Moukouri and partners. LAGOS, Nigeria, 6 July 2021 -/African Media Agency (AMA)/- While organisations across West Africa work to recover from the economic impact of the pandemic, the global cybercrime industry is going into overdrive. An increasingly sophisticated cybercrime industry is launching a range of attacks aimed at organisations and critical infrastructure PoPIA and GDPR. If you have been subject to a personal data breach that is required to be reported under the POPIA or GDPR, please contact the Information Regulator of South Africa or the ICO (Information Commissioner's Office). If there is malicious cyber activity related to this which you wish to report (either for information or for action.

South Africa welcomes new cybercrime legislation The

  1. South Africa has been slow to adopt legislation to tackle cybercrime, and the National Assembly finally adopted the Cyber Crimes Bill in January 2020, he says. The report highlights Dark-Web related data sources and hardly noted any threat actors in South Africa between 2010 and 2014
  2. Cybercrime is a growing concern to countries at all levels of developments and affects both, buyers and sellers. While 154 countries (79 per cent) have enacted cybercrime legislation, the pattern varies by region: Europe has the highest adoption rate (93 per cent) and Asia and the Pacific the lowest (55 per cent)
  3. The main geographic nexus for the Cybercrime Programme in 2017 are Central America, Eastern Africa, MENA and South East Asia & the Pacific with key aims of: Increased efficiency and effectiveness in the investigation, prosecution and adjudication of cybercrime, especially online child sexual exploitation and abuse, within a strong human-rights.

1.1.4 There are various legal provisions addressing cybersecurity in South Africa. However these provisions do not adequately address the legal challenges South Africa faces to effectively deal with cybercrime. 1.1.5 Securing our cyberspace also requires international collaboration given the global interconnection of ICT's Does South African law enforcemen­t, from SAPS through to the National Prosecutin­g Authority, have the capacity and expertise? Swales said cybercrime was a concern. In 2019, it was reported that South Africa had the third most cybercrime victims in the world, losing around R2.2 billion a year South Africa claims the legislation substantially expands its jurisdiction concerning cybercrime, compared to existing law. Both 2015 and 2017 versions of the bill give South Africa jurisdiction.

South African Cybercrime Bill would nail copyright infringers

New Bill offers robust game plan against cybercrime in

In the European Union Cyber-crime law is primarily based on the Council of Europe's Convention on Cyber-crime (November 2001). South Africa has signed but did not ratify the Convention. South Africa has complied with the first part of the Convention (Van der Merwe, 2008, p.101) in terms of which member states are obliged to South Africa's Cyber Crimes Bill is nearing the stages of becoming law, as it was passed by the National Assembly yesterday. With the completion of the National Assembly process, the Bill will be. cybercrime, the legal instruments are the same for developing and developed countries. However, the the act of capturing another person's credentials and/or personal information via the Internet with the Africa).19 Technical developments have improved daily life - for example,. AN ACT to combat computer and computer related crime and to facilitate the collection of electronic evidence. Part I Introduction Short title 1. This Act may be cited as the Computer and Computer Related Crimes Act. Object 2. The object of this Act is to protect the integrity of computer systems and th

Cybercrimes Act, South Africa - CyberBRIC

A 2017 assessment done in Africa found that each act of Internet fraud enabled cybercriminals to steal an average of Sh288m from companies and Sh45m from individuals The POPI Act is a comprehensive data protection law that regulates the processing of personal information in South Africa. It's designed to protect people from data breaches and cybercrime, and to prevent intrusive marketing practices. The right to privacy has long been recognized under Article 14 of the South African Constitution the Ministry of State Security. The Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act of 2013 created the Information Regulator to ensure data privacy. The POPI regime is only being implemented slowly and has overly wide exemptions for national security. South Africa lags behind advanced economies in cybersecurity legislation

South Africa lays down the law on cybercrime - ISS Afric

Polyandry: See why South Africa new marriage act dey propose women to marry more than one husband. UK give £3 million for Ghna, Nigeria, Kenya to fight cybercrime 13th May 2021 Possession or use of hardware, software or other tools used to commit cybercrime. Under the Network Act, any person who mutilates, destroys, alters, or forges an information and communications system, data, program or similar without justifiable grounds, or conveys or spreads a program that is likely to interrupt the operation of such system.

The Cybercrime and Cybersecurity Bill and POPI

Part 2: South Africa's Response to Cyber Crime Part 3: Cyber Crime response and CyberCrime and Cyber Security Bill Part 4 : Concluding remarks . African response to e-commerce . Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Act, 1992 (Act 127 of 1992), a person who intentionally accesses or intercepts any. You may not have noticed, but in the final days of 2018, South Africa scored a win for internet freedom, as legislators defanged the Cybercrimes Bill cybercrime defined. National Cybersecurity Policy Framework for South Africa, 2012 (7 March 2012) states: Cybercrime means illegal acts, the commission of which involves the use of information and communication technologiesThe Cybercrimes Bill, does not provide a definition for cybercrime but rather creates a number of offences which we can refer to collectively as cybercrimes

Cyber Crime In South Africa - HG

Cybercrime in the South African legal fraternity. July 1, 2019. By: Samantha Varela, a Legal Risk Advisor at Aon South Africa . Hack attacks, ransom threats and theft of money through fraudulent transactions are all becoming a stark reality for legal professionals and law firms around the world Cybersecurity policy is focused on providing guidance to anyone that might be vulnerable to cybercrime. This includes businesses, individuals, and even the government. Many countries are looking for ways to promote cybersecurity and prevent cybercrime. For instance, the Indian government passed the Information Technology Act in 2000 Initiatives include building a partnership to address the global cyber enforcement gap through improving the efficiency and effectiveness of public-private collaboration in cybercrime investigations; equipping business decision makers and cybersecurity leaders with the tools necessary to govern cyber risks, protect business assets and investments from the impact of cyber-attacks; and enhancing.

The Cybercrimes Act defines three types of harmful messages that have been criminalised in South Africa. They are messages which: Incite damage to property or violence. Threaten people with damage. 1IT Web Africa, Cybercrime to cost Kenya almost 23 USD million in 2013, 27 November 2013. 2 Coastweek, Cyber experts to assess Kenya's Readiness to Combat Cybercrime. 3 All Africa, ICT Ministry Draws Strategies to Curb Cyber Crime, 12 June 2014 An Act to make provisions for prevention of electronic crimes WHEREAS it is expedient to prevent unauthorized acts with respect to information systems and provide for related offences as well as mechanisms for their investigation, prosecution, trial and international cooperation with respect thereof and for matters connected therewith or. South Africa (20 May 2020) - We have had hundreds of emails and messages ranging from people looking for help to people wanting to offer help. We have been directing them to the charities we know of but a conclusive list is what was needed

New Cybersecurity Act for Singapore - MontashUnsecured Estee Lauder Database Exposed 440 MillionCybercrimes and Cybersecurity Bill Introduced in ParliamentRicky Gervais suggests The Office would not get made nowEmotet, Ryuk, TrickBot: 'Loader-Ransomware-Banker TrifectaDurban Businesswoman Sandra Munsamy Kidnapping Trial SetProtect your website against cyber attacks - iHLS

Computer Misuse and Cybercrime Act, South Africa's Electronic Communications and Transactions Act and India's Information Technology Act, amongst others. In addition, and closer to the subject of this conference, we looked at the Council of Europe's Convention on Cybercrime, as well as the Commonwealt Eight Arrested in Africa-Based Cybercrime and Business Email Compromise Conspiracy Nigeria, and South Africa. through a complex network of both complicit and unwitting individuals that had been recruited through the various Internet scams. The defendants are also charged with concealing their conduct by, among other means, stealing or. IN THE HIGH COURT OF SOUTH AFRICA. WESTERN CAPE DIVISION, CAPE TOWN CASE NO: SS13/2012. The eight accused are charged with a number of offences under the Prevention of Organised Crime Act, 121 of 1998 (POCA) , and the Marine Living Resources Act,18 of 1998, the core of the State's case being that they collectively ran an enterprise.